This study is to understand the concept of watershed development in tribal arena with their social participation. My study tried find out the impact of watershed development in the tribal areas and the community participation of the people in this program which help in their holistic development.
I study here the latest focused arena of today that is watershed development. I got the opportunity to learn from the grass-root level and to acquaint with the topic in a more profound avenue. I selected the Rajasthan particularly for it because it is a drought -prone arena and consist the average population of tribal who are basically based on the agriculture and fill their belly with the return whatever they get by their production. But adversely it proves the dependent occupation for them. They have to depend on the rain for their crops and farming. And at the time in off season they all have to depend on the labour work in this also they are not sure that they will get the daily wage and work. Monsoon plays an important role in feeding up their bellies.
Problem occurs only when in off season they do not have any work because there is no water and no more farming. Situation occurs because of their lack of knowledge and awareness about the conservation and enough accumulation of water for the time of off season. And this situation creates the havocs over there. Their lack of knowledge supported the natural occurring situation and environment.
Impacts After pitching on the study of this project I was acknowledged with the many of the arena’s which is the backbone of this project, that without social participation of the community people or we can say without their own initiatives this project fall under the category of no run and no success. Here after visiting the project area of watershed development which was laid down by the initiative of organization (Cecoedecon) who got the fund from OXFAM and by UNDP for this project. In the village of Purumpur and Sanwara, this is situated under the Shahabad block in Baran district. Both of the villages are consist the tribal population in it. The great success only can be getting when people take initiative by their own. Concern of each and every individual of the covering area is compulsory for expanding the work.
Overall through this project I am able to improve my record collection and interpersonal proximity skill when I was collecting secondary data for the study and when I pitched in the community to know their notions towards the impacts and effects of these medium of conservoir and reservoir by making the Anicuts, Farm Field Bunding, Ponds, Loss Stone Check Dams etc.
As if question occurred that what insight I have gained into the field of watershed development is that the arena was totally new for me except some basic points. After study these project and field visits I get to know the vast area which watershed development consist in it. Watershed development is not only a medium to reserve the water through conservoir and reservoir and Pond, Anicuts. But it is more than this all which become the backbone of the people to support them and strengthen them economically and socially in both way.
Brief overview of the problem
As in this project my main focused area of study was the watershed development in tribal area with their social participation. As this study is basically focused on the tribal area of Rajasthan and the tribes abide over there and what was the precise ratio of their participation in this sort of water and soil conservation project like watershed development and at what extent it was beneficial for them and for their economic as well as in their social upliftment. As it consist the peculiarity of background at some level because it is related with the awakening about to safe the water and participatory ratio of the ST’s residing in a drought-prone area.
India is one of the major agricultural countries with more than 70% population depending on it. Indian agriculture is dependent on the monsoon which is not uniform over the years. The productivity of any crop mainly depends on two natural resources – land and water in addition to management practices. Therefore the conservation of these two natural resources is essential for the sustainability of the rainfed agriculture. This could be done using the watershed development methods. The concept of watershed for development is gaining importance over the year.
As under this project I visited the two villages, Purumpur where watershed covers the area 200(ha.). Here Bheel community were dominated the area. I met there the members and took the information about the land holdings which they possess covering the watershed area. And what are the soil types and what their pattern of cropping are? What sort of manure they use? What are the benefits they are getting after this watershed development project and what was their condition before this when watershed was not available? And what they contributed for this project in any form whether it is by labour or by cash. What are the changes and impacts they seen? Their main crops are kharif and Rabi. They also maintained the seed bank.
Second village which I visited was the Sanwara village which is around 24 km away from the Shahabad. There I visited the project which had been takes place here with the collaboration of organization and with the help of community participation. Watershed area covers around the 14(ha.) and surrounded with the slopes from both of its side. Through which rain water collected centre of farms from both of its side. I saw the FFB’s (Farm field funding), gully plugs, loss stone check dams, anicuts, ponds, which is the sources of water collection and also acquainted with the process of recharging of well. And vary process of water conservation which falls under the watershed development. Three Anicuts are there two by the efforts of organization and one by the government. Previously it was only two FFB’s now it’s added one more and beneficial for the livestock also. FFB’s was started here in the year 2002 covering area of 9(ha.) under it consist the 12 -13 families. I talked there with the villagers of Sanwara about the watershed development. What are their criteria about this? What are the implementations and changes occur before and after the watershed development. They all possessed peculiar land with possessing hectare. Their main occupation is agriculture and livestock.
As every side consist its pros and cons in it so same in this also among them some consider it is a good step and beneficial and some consider that it is a useless and it is nothing more than the wastage of money.
And on the other side they appreciate that at some extent it is beneficial to reserve the water and water level also increases through which they are capable to provide water to three to four times to their crops which is the sign of optimism. This was the fact which I get within the group deliberation of Sahariya community. And after this I pitched to talk with the individuals who possessed their farm in the watershed development area. They faced a lot of changes after the watershed and because of this they are able to stock the water and used it at the time of off rainy season. And water level also increases the production of crops and because of the stock process depositions consist and it makes the land plain. It gives the multidimensional effect on each and every aspect of agriculture including horticulture, bio-diversity, livestock, income, expenditure.
One of the beneficiary Shreelal owner of 1 acre in that area it withhold the soil and manure. Previously it was only one crop system on which they have had to depend and used the water of river only but now the changes occur after this watershed that they can do the mixed cropping and uses the water in off season which they reserve for their cultivation. Farm pond is not successful here because of leaching it can’t withhold. They bring seeds from the organization and they gave 25% of contribution in this. This overall impact is increment in the water level. Helpful in the bio-diversity also.
This watershed development project is for the Shahariya tribes and for the problem which they face at the time of agriculture and cropping.
Another aspect of this study which is sine qua non, lay down of any watershed development project is based on the basic line study and through its topographical study by the engineer. Each and every aspect should be taken into consideration including every estimates and enumeration paradigm what’s the cost and benefit and impact and future aspect of this.
• Equivalence in geographical as well as community social value is equally important. • It is necessary to inculcate the feeling of assurity about the employment, age safety, soil safety through watershed development in the farmers. • Responsibility of all aspect of society. • Recognition of the primary needs of the people. • Beneficial for the people. • Self – responsible for their development. • Increment in the transparency, responsibility and more answerable.
The concept of user’s group under the parasol of watershed association is gaining importance. These associations consist of community members who are directly or indirectly dependent upon the watershed area. These associations will implement and monitor all the activities being proposed under the programme. This includes the formation of water user groups/ self help groups and carrying out all the activities as mentioned in the bylaws of the association. There is also a one -self help group in this area by the name of Gundariya SHG’s. These associations ultimately have to maintain the assets maintain created under the programme for the long term sustainability.
The important facet here in villages which I sentinel that is based on the myths, traditional methods and the denouement which occur as that they don’t want to be bother about the benefits of watershed development and to take the use of the water of it in agriculture. • Ignorance is the main cause. • Not bother about the sustainable development. • Abstain from applying the mixed agriculture and cropping system. • And last but not least is the natural manures avoidance and dependence on market.
Objectives and scopes
The objective of the assignment is to make a comparative assessment of socio -economic impact of the watershed development and the precise ratio of the community to participate in this programme of watershed in the state of Rajasthan.
Field study process Information was collected systematically. I visited the village and deliberate with the abiders of that particular area to collect the data and this helped in understanding of the dynamics of the group and the effectiveness in the management of the programme.
Informal discussions with the users group to get special insights into the perceptions about programme.
Main watershed development program in Rajasthan
Also did the discussions on the other programmes and plans considered in the Drought prone area by the government and the other NGO’s and GO’s to uplifting the abiders of this area. Many of the programmes which is passed by the government itself and with the collaboration of other organization and other funding agencies, as the name of Drought prone area programme (DPAP), employment assurance schemes to providing the guarantee of employment through the NREGA schemes, hundred day employment scheme. Other initiatives also have been takes place in these semi-arid regions for it there is provision of dry land farming and watershed development, farm pond water harvesting structure, distribution of sample population by gender, literacy, occupational pattern, housing and living condition, sanitation, types of dwelling and cropping intensity etc.
Perception of community on the watershed development programme The impact of the WSDP as perceived by the sample households on different aspects, the sample household perceive soil and moisture conservation has been the major impact of the programme. This has led to the better yield. Increase in the ground water level is the effect of water harvesting on watershed basis. Availability of drinking water and also for livestock and horticultural crops has improved. Employment creation under the WSDP is the other major impact as perceived by the community. Also, the programme had created an impact on the land values because of increase in fertility and productivity.
As I fathom the facet over there I pitched on the denouement that the Watershed development programme, typically don’t address the water resource management or rural water supply needs. However they can have significant impacts upon the availability of water resources available for rural water supply. On the one hand watershed development project increase the availability of groundwater at local scale, while on the other they frequently lead to greater irrigation water use and competition for a scarce resources.
Watershed development and rural water supply programmes talk a very similar language emphasizing participatory approaches, community management etc. and they often propose similar activities (afforestation, soil and water conservation, check dams and percolation dams etc.) but they don’t work together or even in a coordinated fashion. This result in several missed opportunities. Without improvement in rural water supply, where access to water is one of the crucial factor in the livelihoods of poor people (affecting health and productive activities dependent upon a water source), watershed development project cannot be expected to significantly improve the livelihoods of poor people.